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Anglo-German Treaty [Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty] (July 1, 1890)

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It is understood that under this arrangement Germany shall be granted free access from its protectorate to the Zambezi by means of a strip of land not less than twenty English miles wide at any point.

Great Britain's sphere of influence is bounded to the west and northwest by the previously described line and includes Lake Ngami.

The course of the planned border has been specified in general accordance with the map officially prepared for the British government in 1889.

The fixing of the southern border of the British territory of Walvis Bay shall be subject to arbitration unless both powers reach a border agreement within two years after the signing of this treaty. Both powers agree that, as long as the border issue is unresolved, not only passage but the transport of goods through the disputed territory shall be free for subjects of both powers. They also agree that their subjects shall be treated equally in every respect in this territory. No duty shall be levied on goods in transit and the territory shall be deemed neutral until such time as this issue is resolved.

Article IV

In West Africa:

1. The border between the German protectorate of Togo and Great Britain’s Gold Coast Colony begins at the border mark determined by both powers’ commissioners during negotiations on July 14 and 28, 1869. It extends northward to the parallel circle at 6° 10‘ north latitude. From there it traces this degree of latitude westward to the left bank of the Aka River and ascends along the thalweg to the parallel of latitude at 6° 20’ north latitude. It follows this degree of latitude westward to the right bank of the Dchawe or Shavoe River and runs along this bank to the parallel of latitude defined by the intersection of the Deine River and the Volta. It then traces this degree of latitude westward to the Volta. Here it ascends the left bank of the Volta to the neutral zone agreed upon in the Treaty of 1888 that starts at the junction of the Dakka River and the Volta.

Both parties agree upon conclusion of this treaty to withdraw all their civil servants and employees from the territory that is assigned to the other by the borders defined above.

2. After it has been satisfactorily proven to both governments that no river exists on the Gulf of Guinea corresponding to the river that is marked on maps as the Rio del Rey and mentioned in the Treaty of 1885, a provisional borderline shall be adopted between the German territory of Cameroon and the adjoining British territory. This borderline shall start at the head of the Rio del Rey Creek and run directly to the point at roughly 9° 8’ of east longitude marked as “Rapids” on the British Admiralty map.

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