GHDI logo

Anglo-German Treaty [Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty] (July 1, 1890)

This treaty temporarily settled colonial disputes between Germany and Great Britain. It recognized Tanganyika as a German colony; in return, the Germans abstained from further encroaching into British Kenya. The agreement ceded Heligoland, an island off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein in the North Sea, to Germany. Because the treaty appeared to abandon German colonial claims to much of east Africa, it unleashed a storm of nationalist protest at home.

print version     return to document list previous document      next document

page 1 of 6

The undersigned:

Chancellor and General of the Infantry von Caprivi,

Legation Councilor at the Foreign Office Dr. Krauel,

Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinaire and Plenipotentiary Sir Edward Baldwin Malet,

Chief of the African Department of Her Majesty's Foreign Office Sir Henry Percy,

have, on behalf of their respective governments, reached the following agreement after deliberating on various issues pertaining to the colonial interests of Germany and Great Britain:

Article I

In East Africa, Germany's sphere of influence is demarcated thus:

1. To the north by the line that commences on the northern bank of the mouth of the Umba River, runs directly to Lake Jipe and, after passing along the eastern shore and around the northern shore of that lake, crosses the Lumi River and bisects the territories of Taveta and Chaga. Skirting the northern slope of the Kilimanjaro range, this line continues to the point on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria Nyanza that is intersected by the 1st degree of south latitude. It crosses the lake on this parallel and follows it to the border of the Congo Free State, where it terminates. It is understood, though, that the German sphere of interest on the western side of the aforementioned lake does not include Mount Mfumbiro. Should it turn out that this mountain lies to the south of the aforementioned parallel of latitude, the line of demarcation shall be drawn so as to exclude the mountain from the German sphere of interest; but the line shall nonetheless terminate at the previously described point.

2. To the south by the line that starts on the coast of the northern border of Mozambique Province and follows the course of the Rovuma River to the point where the Messinge flows into the Rovuma. From here the line runs westward on the parallel of latitude to the shore of Lake Nyasa. Turning north, it continues along the eastern, northern, and western shores of the lake until it reaches the northern bank of the mouth of the Songwe River. It then continues up that river to its intersection point with the 33rd degree of east longitude. The line continues along the river until its closest point with the border of the geographical Congo Basin as described in Article I of the Berlin Conference and marked on the map appended to its ninth protocol. From here the line runs directly to the previously described border, follows this to the point of intersection with the 32nd degree of east longitude, turns and continues directly to the meeting point of the northern and southern branches of the Kilambo River. It follows that river until it enters Lake Tanganyika.

first page < previous   |   next > last page