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Anglo-German Treaty [Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty] (July 1, 1890)

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Article V

It is understood that treaties or agreements concluded by, or for the benefit of, one of the two powers in the areas north of the Benue River shall not interfere with the other power’s right to engage in trade, freely and without duties, on routes to and from the shores of Lake Chad. Both powers are obliged to report to each other all agreements that they reach in the territories between the Benue and Lake Chado.

Article VI

Any correction of the demarcation lines described in Articles I to IV that becomes necessary due to local requirements may be undertaken by agreement between the two powers.

It is understood, in particular, that commissioners will meet as soon as possible to undertake such a correction with regard to the borders described in Article IV.

Article VII

The two powers agree that they shall not interfere in the sphere of influence assigned the other by Articles I to IV. They shall not, in the other’s sphere of influence, make acquisitions, sign treaties, accept sovereign rights or protectorates, or prevent the other from expanding its influence.

It is understood that companies or individuals subject to one power shall not be permitted to exercise sovereign rights in the sphere of influence assigned the other, except with the consent of the latter.

Article VIII

Both powers agree to apply the provisions of the first five articles of the General Act of the 1885 Berlin Conference in all areas of their territories located within the free trade zone described in this Act and to which its first five articles are applicable on the day of the conclusion of the present treaty. According to these provisions, trade is free; shipping is free on lakes, rivers, canals and their ports for both flags; unequal treatment as regards transport or coastal trade is prohibited; goods of either origin shall not be subject to taxes other than those raised to cover trade-related outlays, unequal treatment excluded. Transit duty may not be levied, and monopolies and privileged commercial treatment may not be granted.

The subjects of both powers have the right to settle freely in either power’s territories, provided that these are located in the free trade zone.

It is understood, in particular, that, in accordance with these provisions, the transport of goods by both sides shall not be subject to any obstacles or transit duties between Lake Nyasa and the Congo Free State, between Lake Nyasa and Lake Tanganyika, on Lake Tanganyika, and between this lake and the northern border of both spheres of influence.

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