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Images - Religion, Education, Social Welfare
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1.   Otto Günther, Disputatious Theologians [Disputierende Theologen] (1876)
Scholars debating a fine point of theology are shown in this woodcut by Albert Bothe, based on a painting by Otto Edmund Günther (1838-1884).
Otto Günther, <i>Disputatious Theologians</i> [<i>Disputierende Theologen</i>] (1876)
2.   Georg Knorr, Collection after the Service [Kollekte nach dem Gottesdienst] (1881)
In a style not unlike Norman Rockwell’s, this painting by Georg Knorr combines realism, intimacy, and humor. The worshipper in the center is unable, or disinclined, to add anything to the collection....
Georg Knorr, <i>Collection after the Service</i> [<i>Kollekte nach dem Gottesdienst</i>] (1881)
3.   Geographical Distribution of Protestants and Catholics (1890)
This map shows why Catholics in the German Empire [Reich] felt marginalized – figuratively and literally. Areas in which Catholics constituted a high proportion of the population included....
Geographical Distribution of Protestants and Catholics (1890)
4.   Adolph Menzel, Procession in Hofgastein [Prozession in Hofgastein] (1880)
That the “new German art” of the 1880s would reflect the political and cultural struggles of the day was inevitable. This painting by Adolph Menzel (1815-1905), also titled Corpus Christi Procession....
Adolph Menzel, <i>Procession in Hofgastein</i> [<i>Prozession in Hofgastein</i>] (1880)
5.   Election Day in the Mountains of Bavaria [Wahltag im Bayerischen Gebirge] (c. 1870)
From the early 1870s onward, the Catholic Center Party was the main political vehicle for the....
<i>Election Day in the Mountains of Bavaria</i> [<i>Wahltag im Bayerischen Gebirge</i>] (c. 1870)
6.   "Between Berlin and Rome" (1875)
The year 1875 saw relations between Prussia and the Catholic Church reach an all-time low. In February of that year, the Pope had issued an encyclical declaring that the Kulturkampf laws [cultural....
7.   "Modus vivendi" (1878)
The caption to this cartoon is slightly ambiguous, as is the German phrase uttered by the Pope, “geniren Sie sich nicht,” which can be translated variously as “make yourself at home,” “speak quite....
8.   Center Party Leader Ludwig Windthorst with Members of the Guelph Party (1889)
The white-haired figure in the center of this 1889 photograph is Ludwig Windthorst (1812-1891), the leader of the Catholic Center Party and the oldest member of the Reichstag at that time (he died....
Center Party Leader Ludwig Windthorst with Members of the Guelph Party (1889)
9.   "'Of One Mind.' (For Once!)" (January 25, 1879)
This cartoon was published in the English satirical journal Punch at a time when Bismarck’s Socialist Law had been in effect for barely three months. It suggests that opposition to “socialism,....
10.   Geographic Distribution of Liberal and Orthodox Jews
This map shows the approximate distribution of orthodox and liberal Jews in the German Empire [Reich]; it also shows large territories where neither group predominated. In the eastern territory....
Geographic Distribution of Liberal and Orthodox Jews
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