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1.   Germany (c. 1500)
At the transition from the late Middle Ages to the modern era (i.e., around 1500), the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation comprised all of Central Europe, as well as parts of western, central....
Germany (c. 1500)
2.   Germany with Imperial and other Cities (c. 1500)
Under the rule of the Roman king, who also held the title emperor, the German lands were governed by a myriad of secular and ecclesiastical princes, also by dukes, counts, and other titled and even....
Germany with Imperial and other Cities (c. 1500)
3.   Ecclesiastical Organization (c. 1500)
Beginning in late antiquity, the Roman Catholic Church was divided into provinces and dioceses. An archbishop possessed spiritual authority over his province and the other bishops (suffragans) in....
Ecclesiastical Organization (c. 1500)
4.   Imperial Circles (c. 1512)
At the start of the early modern era, efforts were made to strengthen the government of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Under Emperor....
Imperial Circles (c. 1512)
5.   The Revolution of 1525
The Revolution of 1525 is another name for the German Peasants' War, the largest insurrection in European history before the French Revolution. It began in the Black Forest in late summer and fall....
The Revolution of 1525
6.   Germany with Imperial and other Cities (c. 1555)
By 1555, after the Smalkaldic War of 1546/47 between Emperor Charles V and the Protestant princes and cities and the Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555), the Holy Roman Empire had assumed the basic....
Germany with Imperial and other Cities (c. 1555)
7.   Confessional Divisions (c. 1560)
The absence of strong central authority in the Holy Roman Empire greatly shaped the relationship between state and religion. Whereas royal-national churches were being fashioned in other kingdoms,....
Confessional Divisions (c. 1560)
8.   Germany with Imperial and other Cities (1648)
In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia was concluded in the northwestern German episcopal cities of M√ľnster....
Germany with Imperial and other Cities (1648)
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