GHDI logo

Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949/ Amendments 1956)

page 3 of 7    print version    return to list previous document      next document

Article 8

(1) All Germans have the right to assemble peacefully and unarmed without prior notification or permission.
(2) With regard to open-air meetings this right may be restricted by or pursuant to a law.

Article 9

(1) All Germans have the right to form corporations and societies.
(2) Associations, the objects or activities of which conflict with the criminal laws or which are directed against the constitutional order or the concept of international understanding, are prohibited.
(3) The right to form associations to safeguard and improve working and economic conditions is guaranteed to everyone and to all trades and professions. Agreements which restrict or seek to hinder this right are null and void; measures directed to this end are illegal.

Article 10

Secrecy of the mail and secrecy of postal services and of and telecommunications are inviolable. Restrictions may be ordered only pursuant to a law.

Article 11

(1) All Germans enjoy freedom of movement throughout the federal territory.
(2) This right may be restricted only by a law and only in cases in which an adequate basis of existence is lacking and special burdens would arise to the community as a result thereof or in which the restriction is necessary for the protection of youth against neglect, for combating the danger of epidemics or for the prevention of crime.

Article 12

(1) All Germans have the right to choose their trade or profession, their place of work and their place of training. The practice of trades or professions may be regulated by law.
(2) No one may be compelled to perform a particular work except within the framework of a customary public duty to render services which applies generally and equally to all.
(3) Forced labor may be imposed only in the event that a person is deprived of his freedom by the sentence of a court.

Article 13

(1) The home is inviolable.
(2) Searches may be ordered only by a judge or, in the event of danger in delay, by other authorities as provided by law and may be carried out only in the form prescribed by law.
(3) Otherwise, this inviolability may be encroached upon or restricted only to avert a common danger or a mortal danger to individuals, and, pursuant to a law, to prevent imminent danger to public security and order, especially to alleviate the housing shortage, to combat the danger of epidemics, or to protect endangered juveniles.

first page < previous   |   next > last page