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Images - Gender and Family
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1.   Evening Prayer (1823)
This scene of three generations gathered for an evening prayer suggests the patriarchal nature....
Evening Prayer (1823)
2.   The Children's Room (1823)
This interior scene shows women fulfilling one of the duties assigned to them by early nineteenth-century bourgeois society – that of raising the children. Etching by Johann Michael Voltz, 1823.
The Children's Room (1823)
3.   The Sewing Room (1823)
Sewing as a recreational pursuit of the middle classes (as shown here), or as piecework undertaken by the working class, was virtually the exclusive preserve of women and girls. Etching by Johann....
The Sewing Room (1823)
4.   Family during the Biedermeier Period (c. 1830)
Family of seven in a Biedermeier interior. An "inner" orientation toward the home and family, as opposed to political activism, was the hallmark of bourgeois society in this period, at least until....
Family during the Biedermeier Period (c. 1830)
5.   Rural Family Scene (1839)
Life in large peasant households, where several generations often lived under the same roof, was based on age-old roles and patterns, as this image suggests. Lithograph by G. Bormann, 1839.
Rural Family Scene (1839)
6.   Orphaned Girls and Boys in a Welfare Institution (1846)
If traditional gender roles were clearly separated in bourgeois family life, such distinction....
Orphaned Girls and Boys in a Welfare Institution (1846)
7.   Caricature: Female University Student (1847)
Female student with the attributes of a male university student, including a pipe and student cap. The six-point star on the building behind her is a guild symbol for breweries; it indicates that....
Caricature: Female University Student (1847)
8.   Caricature: Women's Club Meeting (1848)
"In the women's club – we demand that skirts be abolished and that men take over the housework." This caricature of a women's club meeting reveals the uphill battle that early women's....
Caricature: Women's Club Meeting (1848)
9.   "Modern Dress" (1862)
The beginning of the women’s movement in the second half of the nineteenth century saw the increasing involvement of women in social life, politics, and literature. More than that, however, it also....
10.   Portrait of Louise Otto (1892)
The author and journalist Louise Otto (1819-1895), portrayed in a wood engraving from 1892, became politically active in the Revolution of 1848/49 by publishing the ....
Portrait of Louise Otto (1892)
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