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Documents - Germany as a Middle Power
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1.   Checkbook Diplomacy in 1991 (Retrospective Account, 1995)
Despite international pressure, the Federal Republic of Germany refused to get involved militarily in the Gulf War (1991) and instead offered generous financial support. In the following piece, then....
2.   A New Chapter in German Foreign Policy? (December 21, 1991)
By forging ahead in recognizing the sovereignty of Croatia and Slovenia, Germany’s federal government underestimated the shadows of the past, and its policy sparked fears among its European alliance....
3.   Approval for Expansion to the East (October 8, 1993)
Defense minister Volker Rühe was one of the first German politicians to publicly approve the eastward expansion of the Western alliance systems, the European....
4.   Landmark Decision on Foreign Deployments of the Bundeswehr (July 12, 1994)
After the federal government approved foreign deployments of the Bundeswehr in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Somalia in 1993, the FDP, and later the SPD, filed complaints with the Federal Constitutional....
5.   The Federal Republic in Central and Eastern Europe (February 17, 1995)
In a speech delivered in Prague in 1995, Czech president Václav Havel broached the difficult subject of German-Czech reconciliation and discussed the important....
6.   Peacekeeping Mission in Croatia: The Bundestag Resolves to Send Bundeswehr Units (December 6, 1995)
After the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords, the Bundestag approved, by a large majority, the deployment of 4,000 Bundeswehr soldiers in support of the international peacekeeping mission. Excerpts....
7.   The Kosovo War and the Greens (May 13, 1999)
Only six months after the start of the red-green coalition, the governing parties faced a litmus test. For the first time since the Second World War, the Federal Republic declared its readiness to....
8.   Full Solidarity with the United States (September 12, 2001)
A day after the terrorist attacks on the United States, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder assured U.S. President George W.....
9.   Pacifism in the Federal Republic (January 2003)
By the time the U.S. was preparing to invade Iraq, pacifism was no longer primarily a concern of the Left, as it had been in the 1980s. Rather, pacifism, as a basic stance, enjoyed the support of....
10.   The Transatlantic Alliance as Reflected in New Relations (February 6, 2005)
According to the author of this article, it was in the interest of both Germany and the U.S. to diffuse the tension that marred their relations in the wake of the American invasion of Iraq. But as....
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