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Documents - Science and Education
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1.   Emperor Joseph II, Letter to Austrian Chancellor and Bohemian Governor Heinrich Cajetan Count von Bl├╝megen on the Reform of Higher Education in the Austrian Empire (November 29, 1781)
Joseph concentrated university study at a handful of institutions in his far-flung lands. He aimed to spread elementary schooling and to shift higher education away from traditional humanistic disciplines....
2.   School Reform in Baden: Edict Issued by Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden (May 13, 1803)
Educational reform and innovation, driven both by Enlightenment precepts and state interest in an age of burgeoning nationalism, figured prominently in the reform era that accompanied the Napoleonic....
3.   Introduction of the University-Entrance Examination [Abitur] in Prussia: Edict signed by King Frederick William III, State Chancellor Hardenberg, and Minister Friedrich von Schuckmann (October 12, 1812)
This text aptly illustrates the Neo-Humanism that animated the Prussian educational reform program, as formulated by Wilhelm....
4.   Wilhelm von Humboldt's Treatise "On the Internal and External Organization of the Higher Scientific Institutions in Berlin" (1810)
Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), a renowned philosopher, scholar, and linguist, and the minister responsible for educational reform in Prussia, oversaw the planning and opening of the innovative....
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