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Final Act of the Viennese Ministerial Conferences (May 15, 1820)

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Art. 12. Only in cases expressly designated in the Federal Act and when it concerns a declaration of war or the confirmation of a peace settlement on the side of the Confederation, or when a decision has to be made about the admission of a new member into the Confederation, does the Assembly form a plenum. If, in individual cases, there is any doubt about whether something is a matter for the plenum, closed council is entitled to decide. Neither discussion nor deliberation takes place in the plenum; instead, there is simply a vote about whether a resolution prepared in closed council should be adopted or rejected. – A valid resolution in the plenum requires a majority of two-thirds of the votes.

Art. 13. Concerning the following matters:
1) Acceptance of new basic laws, or amendments to the same;
2) Organic institutions, meaning permanent establishments, as means to fulfill stated Confederal goals;
3) Admission of new members into the Confederation;
4) Religious affairs; no resolution by a majority of votes shall take place; nevertheless, a definitive vote on matters of this kind can take place after careful examination and discussion of the reasons determining the opposition from individual Confederal members, whose statement may not be denied in any instance.

Art. 14. Where the organic institutions in particular are concerned, not only should there be a decision in the plenum, and with a unanimity of votes, on the preliminary question about whether such are necessary under the circumstances, but also on the preliminary and final versions of the same in general outline and essential provisions. If the decision has turned out in favor of proposed institution, all further negotiations about execution in detail shall be left to the closed assembly, which shall decide all the ensuing questions by a majority of votes, and also, according to how the circumstances are judged, arrange a commission from among their members in order to settle the different opinions and motions with the greatest possible care and consideration for the circumstances and wishes of the individual members.

Art. 15. In cases when the Confederal members do not appear in their constitutional unity, but rather as individual, autonomous, and independent states, consequently administering jura singulorum, or when individual Confederal members are expected a give a special service or consent to the Confederation not required by all members, no resolution binding on the same can be passed without the free approval of all participants.

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Art. 18. Since harmony and peace among the Confederal members should be preserved undisturbed, when the domestic tranquility and security of the Confederation is threatened in any way, the Confederal Assembly will [take measures to] preserve or restore them, and pass appropriate resolutions guided by the provisions contained in the following articles.

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Art. 19. When acts of violence between Confederal members are feared or have actually occurred, the Confederal Assembly is to be summoned to take provisional measures to obviate the necessity for self-defense and to resist [or to bring an end to] measures that have already been taken. To this end, above all, it shall take care to uphold vested rights.

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