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The Official Responsibility: The Treaty of Versailles, Article 231 (June 28, 1919)

Among other things, the Treaty of Versailles laid the blame for the First World War on German aggression in 1914. During the Weimar era, this much hated pronouncement became a rallying cry for right-wing forces in Germany.

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Part VIII. (Articles 231-247) Reparations

Article 231

The allied and associated governments affirm and Germany acknowledges that Germany and her allies are responsible for all losses and damages that the allied and associated governments and their nationals have suffered as a result of the war imposed on them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

Source: Der Friedensvertrag von Versailles nebst Schlußprotokoll und Rheinlandstatut [The Peace Treaty of Versailles together with the Final Protocol and Rhineland Statute]. Berlin, 1925.

Translation: Adam Blauhut

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