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Documents - Economy and Labor
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1.   Friedrich Bülau's Call for a Market-Oriented Solution to the Problem of Poverty in Germany (1834)
In his 1834 analysis of Germany’s economic problems, Leipzig economist Friedrich Bülau (1805-1859) argues that only free market solutions, not government restrictions, were capable of remedying poverty,....
2.   Friedrich List: Excerpt from National System of Political Economy (1841)
In this excerpt from National System of Political Economy (1841), economist Friedrich List....
3.   John Prince-Smith: Excerpts from his Collected Writings (1843-63)
Due to dissatisfaction with restrictions on guild rights, protective tariffs, and feudal agricultural law, the idea of free trade gained increasing support. One of the most important proponents of....
4.   "Freedom of Occupation": Excerpt from the Staats-Lexikon: "Trade and Manufacturing" (1845-1848)
As this excerpt from Carl von Rotteck and Carl Welcker’s Staats-Lexikon (1845-1848) demonstrates,....
5.   Conservative Denunciation of Occupational Freedom as the Result of an Interfering State Bureaucracy (1851)
In this passage from his influential book Civil Society (1851), the conservative folklorist Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl (1823-1897) describes occupational freedom as an instrument of government....
6.   Victor Böhmert's Critique of the Traditional and Restrictive Nature of Guilds (1858)
This excerpt from Victor Böhmert’s (1829-1918) book on freedom of occupation criticizes the traditional, restrictive ....
7.   Socialist View of the Results of the Free Market Economy: Excerpt from Ferdinand Lassalle's "Open Letter" (1863)
In his “Open Letter” (1863), written at the request of a Leipzig workers’ committee, socialist leader ....
8.   Catholic View of the Economy: Excerpts from Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler's "The Labor Question and Christianity" (1864)
An influential Catholic bishop who advocated Christian social ideas, Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler....
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