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Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (1909)
Although Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (1856-1921) had neither diplomatic nor military training, he was appointed chancellor in July 1909, after the fall of Bernhard von Bülow (1849-1929). During the First World War, Bethmann Hollweg clashed repeatedly with the Supreme Army Command. He initially opposed unrestricted submarine warfare but eventually gave in to it, fully aware that it would prompt the United States to enter the war. When, in July 1917, a Reichstag majority passed a peace resolution – a peace without annexations – he came under increasing criticism. The Kaiser also withheld his support and Bethmann Hollweg was forced to resign on July 13, 1917.