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Documents - Anti-Revolutionary Measures in the Austrian Empire
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1.   "Police Minister" Johann Anton Pergen Briefs Emperor Leopold II on "the Most Important Activities of the Secret Police" (March 2, 1790)
In the 1790s, revolutionary France and Habsburg Austria pioneered, for differing purposes, the creation of modern, bureaucratized, and rationalized political police organs. The Austrian government....
2.   Emperor Franz II's Confidential Instructions to his Officials in Austria and Bohemia on "Preventive Measures for the Maintenance of Civil Peace and Order" (February 9, 1793)
Here, in summary form, are the anti-revolutionary concerns animating the Austrian government after the outbreak in 1792 of war with France. Notable are the recommendations for clandestinely government-inspired....
3.   "Guidelines for the Administration of Censorship and for the Behavior of the Censors" (1810)
Enlightenment liberalism argued for a free marketplace of ideas. Eighteenth-century German governments took long strides in this direction, but religious counter-currents and later the French Revolution....
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