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1.   Ferdinand Freiligrath, "Hurrah, Germania!" (July 25, 1870)
The liberal and democratic views of author Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-1876) prompted censors to ban his poems in the 1840s. Freiligrath emigrated to London in 1846. Two years later, he returned....
2.   Theodor Fontane on German Sentiment during the War with France (August 5, 1870)
Regarded by many as the most important German-language realist writer of the nineteenth century, Theodor....
3.   Jacob Burckhardt on German Sentiment during and after the War with France (1870-72)
Like Theodor Fontane (1819-1898), ....
4.   Theodor Fontane, "On the Cologne Cathedral Festivities" (October 15, 1880)
Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) is regarded by many as the most important German-language realist writer of the nineteenth century. But before he turned to writing novels – which he did only relatively....
5.   Gustav Freytag on the Moral Verdict Delivered by Victory over France (1887)
Gustav Freytag (1816-1895) belonged to the first tier of German journalists, novelists, and political publicists in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Raised in an upper middle-class Prussian....
6.   Friedrich Nietzsche on Germany’s Victory over France and the "Cultural Philistine": Untimely Meditations (1873-76)
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) had a tremendous impact on German philosophy in the nineteenth....
7.   Friedrich Nietzsche Pronounces "God is Dead": The Gay Science (1882)
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) had a tremendous impact on German philosophy in the nineteenth....
8.   Theodor Fontane on Germany’s Historical Epochs and Aristocratic Decline: The Stechlin (1899)
Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) is regarded by many as the most important (and most enduring) German-language....
9.   Paul de Lagarde on Liberalism, Education, and the Jews: German Writings (1886)
Paul de Lagarde (1827-1891) was a theologian and orientalist; he became professor of oriental languages at the University of Göttingen in 1869. Politically, he was a conservative and a virulent antisemite:....
10.   Alfred Lichtwark, Inaugural Address as Director of Hamburg’s Art Gallery (December 9, 1886)
Alfred Lichtwark (1852-1914) was a school teacher, an art historian, a prolific writer and speaker, and the first director of Hamburg’s Kunsthalle [Art Gallery], which he led from 1886 until his....
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