||Child Labor on a Pomeranian Estate and its Effects on School Lessons (1887)
In rural areas, proper schooling for underprivileged children continued to be less a universal right than a privilege. This report from the Prussian backwoods province of Pomerania shows that children....
||Elementary School Pupils as Messengers and Workers (1878-1890)
Social reformers understood how adversely child labor affected children’s health and school performance; but they also had to consider the economic pressures facing poor families. The following observations....
||Class Divisions and School Curricula in a Small-Town Elementary School (1880s)
As this autobiographical account of school life in the mountainous Harz region of central Germany reveals, the quality of schooling and school buildings was closely tied to students’ social backgrounds:....
||Catholic and Protestant Girls’ Schooling (late 1880s-1890s)
While higher secondary education for boys was designed as preparation for university studies (to which women in Germany were only admitted in the early twentieth century), girls’ schooling usually....
||Self-Described Status and Duties of an Elementary School Teacher (c. 1890)
The establishment of universal education in the course of the nineteenth century constituted an important aspect of Germany’s rise. Despite frictions with the church, notoriously low pay, and difficulties....
||The Association of German Students: Leipzig Students Remember the First Ten Years (1881-1891)
A wide variety of student fraternities and associations existed at German universities. Some emphasized religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic, Jewish); some were traditional, typically stressing....
||Kaiser Wilhelm II’s Royal Decree on Reformed School Instruction as a Means to Combat Social Democracy (May 1, 1889)
This Royal Decree [kaiserlicher Erlaß] was issued by Kaiser Wilhelm II when he had been German emperor for less than a year. It postulates the political education of elementary school pupils....
||Kaiser Wilhelm I’s Royal Proclamation on Social Policy
(November 17, 1881)
Although Bismarck had implemented the Anti-Socialist Law in 1878, the socialist movement was....
||Bismarck’s Reichstag Speech on the Law for Workers’ Compensation (March 15, 1884)
Part of the social welfare legislation announced in Kaiser Wilhelm I’s Royal Proclamation of November 17, 1881 was a workers’ compensation law, which passed only on the third attempt, in 1884. The....
||Kaiser Wilhelm II’s Decree to Bismarck on Workers’ Protection and Social Policy (February 4, 1890)
In June 1888, after the death of both his grandfather and father earlier that year, Wilhelm II became German Kaiser. A showdown with the aging Bismarck, who had been appointed Prussian minister president....
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