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Documents - Part IV: Section A – Confessional Era
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1.   The Empire and Its Reformation – Lazarus von Schwendi’s Advice to Emperor Maximilian II (1574)
For more than a generation after the Religious Peace of 1555, the Empire lived in relative....
2.   Ordering Protestant Churches – Visitation and School Ordinances in the Palatinate (1556)
The Protestant reform of churches and schools produced a plethora of laws of purification, regeneration, surveillance, admonition, and correction. The laws reproduced here come from Electoral Palatinate,....
3.   Life between the Confessions – Nicodemism at Augsburg (1598)
In sixteenth-century usage, the term Nicodemism referred to persons who overtly conformed to the official religion but privately practiced another (proscribed) religion or none. Sometimes it also....
4.   The Plight of the Old Faith – Peter Canisius, SJ, to Giovanni Cardinal Morone (1576)
By the mid-1570s, the Catholic Church had lost vast sectors of the Empire: more than a dozen dioceses, including the archbishoprics of Magdeburg and Bremen, as well as hundreds of abbeys and convents.....
5.   The Counterreformation in Inner Austria (1579-80)
Under the terms of Emperor Ferdinand I’s will, the hereditary Habsburg lands were partitioned among his sons: the archduchy (Upper and Lower Austria); Inner Austria (the duchies of Styria, Carinthia,....
6.   Religious Peace in a Rural Commune – Zizers in Graubünden (November 10, 1616)
Nowhere in Europe, arguably, was the freedom to make purely local decisions on the issues raised by the Protestant Reformation greater than in the Republic of the Three Leagues in Graubünden (now....
7.   The Bohemian Religious Peace (July 1609)
Formal religious toleration most often came not as the fruit of magnanimous tolerance but rather of political struggle. After the ....
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