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Martin Buber (c. 1930)
Martin Buber (1878-1965) – who was famous for his concept of the dialogic principle [das dialogische Prinzip], as described in I and Thou (1923), and as a translator of the Bible and an interpreter of Hasidic mysticism – advocated a cultural and spiritual form of Zionism that was tied to a vision of “Hebrew humanism.” Before and after World War I, he was actively engaged in the debate between cultural and political Zionism, first as an editor of Die Welt, Theodor Herzl's Vienna-based organ of the Zionist movement, and later as publisher of the monthly journal Der Jude. He was the leading figure in the Jewish cultural renaissance of the 1920s, and his influence led to the development of a modern form of Judaism.