To carry out the London Four-Power Agreement "for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis," the victorious powers produced a "charter for the International Military Tribunal." The International Military Tribunal (IMT) in Nuremberg was established on this basis. According to the statute, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity fell within the purview of the tribunal. On October 6, 1945, twenty-four individuals were indicted on four charges: (1) common planning or conspiracy (to carry out a war of aggression or a war violating international treaties), (2) crimes against peace, (3) war crimes, and (4) crimes against humanity.
In the first row we see, from left to right: Hermann Göring (found guilty on all four charges), Rudolf Heß (guilty on the first and second charges, not guilty on the third and fourth charges), and Joachim von Ribbentrop (guilty on all four charges). In the back row, from left to right, Karl Dönitz (not guilty on the first charge, guilty on the second and third charges, not accused of the fourth offense), Erich Raeder (hidden; guilty on the first, second, and third charges, not accused of the fourth offense), and Baldur von Schirach (not guilty on the first charge, guilty of the fourth charge, not accused of the second and third offenses). Because of the bright light of the cameras filming the trial, the accused were given dark glasses. Photographer unknown.