Shoemaker's Apprenticeship Program for Members of the Jewish Community in Berlin (1935)
The expropriation of the Jews and their exclusion from particular professions had a dire impact on the economic situation of the Jewish population. Jewish communities and organizations answered by offering a variety of self-help initiatives for their members and by trying to integrate Jews into new economic niches. German Jews also pursued occupational retraining in agriculture and the handicrafts to meet the demands of the foreign job market and the immigration restrictions imposed by destination countries. In doing so, they hoped to better their chances for emigration. This 1935 photograph shows members of Berlin’s Jewish community participating in a shoemaker’s apprenticeship program. Photo by Abraham Pisarek.