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Advertisement by the Dehomag Company for Hollerith Punch-Cards, which were used in the 1933 Census (June 1933)
Censuses were not invented by the Nazi leadership; they had already been taken in the German Customs Union [Zollverein] during the nineteenth century. But in the new National Socialist police state, which sought total control over society, a state "survey" [√úbersicht] of the population took on a new meaning. Below is an advertisement for the Dehomag company, a subsidiary of IBM, for so-called Hollerith punch cards, which were used in preparing and analyzing the 1933 census.