Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State [Der Judenstaat] (1896)
In the 1890s, amidst a wave of anti-Semitism, which was especially virulent in France and Austria, Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) sought to create a haven for European Jews in the form of a nation-state. Herzl's The Jewish State [Der Judenstaat] laid the groundwork for the Zionist movement and, eventually, the state of Israel. Below is the title-page of the first edition of his book, published in 1896. It reads: “The Jewish State: An Attempt to Find a Modern Solution to the Jewish Question. By Theodor Herzl, Doctor of Law.” The book differs from Walther Rathenau's Hear, Oh Israel [Höre, Israel], which espoused assimilation rather than Zionism.