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School Reform in Baden: Edict Issued by Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden (May 13, 1803)

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10.) The middle school (Realschule): It is intended to develop the boys’ secular subjects of instruction better. All of the boys that have left school, except those living in remote parts of town or on farms or those that are very poor, thus being able to spare less time and needing less education for their future advancement, shall attend their own lessons all winter long for three years after leaving school. The aim is to advance them in knowledge agreeable and serving the common good in arithmetic, composition of essays, reading different kinds of manuscripts, also by reading aloud passages of appropriate general education books; moreover, to provide them with a few initial basics of practical geometry, where the teachers are capable of such and enthusiasts are to be found.

What, moreover, concerns

B.) the urban schools, it is imperative that

11.) those in smaller rural cities, which merely support themselves largely by agriculture and common trades, be treated on the same footing, only that one has to strive, as far as the opportunity arises to do so, to link educational arrangements toward geometric drawing and architectural drawing.

12.) In the larger cities, which mainly deal with industries and artistic works, that type of education does not suffice; moreover, the type of different school divisions cannot be applied there in the same way. On the other hand, for the most part these places already have special institutes for both sexes, which, depending on their diversity and internal organization as well as local requirements, also demand a variety of curricula. Thus, with respect to these We only deem it necessary to note the following general points: For one thing a.) school lessons here must definitely be extended as well to the geography pertaining at least to the continents and their national division on the whole, further relating to Germany and the neighboring empires specifically, similarly to general world history, at least up to the downfall of the western imperial rule, and subsequently to German imperial history until recent times, though limited to the main epochs and major events; [ . . . ] c.) in this category, it is imperative to provide completely for both categories of drawing instruction outlined, and principally also d.) for the organization of French language classes, as far as the funds suitable for this purpose permit. In this connection, e.) in the capitals, one should direct attention toward how to establish technical classes as well, which would allow the children to obtain a grounding required of them for subsequent mature reflection regarding the handling and perfection of that knowledge. Where f.) in the same city secondary schools exist, certainly the teachers of such secondary schools may take care of this further instruction required in urban middle schools but in a way not resulting in a blending of those middle-class schools with these ‘study schools,’ a practice which would otherwise always tend to disadvantage the studies, and which therefore must be ceased wherever it may have existed. [ . . . ]

II.) The secondary schools or lower study institutes are also divided into several branches, namely [ . . . ] Latin schools, [ . . . ] pedagogical schools, [ . . . ] grammar schools, [ . . . ] finally the Lycei or academic grammar schools, [ . . . ]. Since Our territories now united include all of these different categories, We decree the following in this respect: [ . . . ]

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