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Philip Wilhelm von Hörnigk, "Austria over all, if she only wills it" (1684)

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If, then, the power and excellence of a country lie in its superfluity of gold, silver and all other things necessary and desirable for its subsistence, all, as far as possible, from its own stocks, without dependence on others and further, in the proper cultivation, use and application thereof, it follows that a national economic system has to see how such superfluity, cultivation and enjoyment can be brought into being out of native resources, without dependence on others or, where this is not completely possible, then with as little dependence as possible and with all possible economy of the national finances. To which end the following nine rules must chiefly serve.

First: the nature of the country must be exactly observed and surveyed, every corner, every clod of earth examined to see whether it be cultivable. Every useful plant under the sun shall be examined to see whether it could flourish in the country and how well, since the proximity of the sun, or its reverse, is not everything. In all that concerns gold and silver, no labor or expense should be spared to bring them to light.

Secondly, all commodities in a country which cannot be used raw are to be processed at home; since the cost of manufacture usually exceeds that of the raw material by twice, thrice, ten, twenty, sometimes a hundredfold, and a sensible economist must shudder to throw this away.

Thirdly, men are necessary to put these rules into effect, both to produce and transport, and to cultivate the raw materials and to process them. Regard must therefore be had to populating a country with as many men as it can support – the business, alas! often neglected, of a well-ordered State. And all possible ways and means must be found to bring these men out of idleness into productive employment, to teach them and encourage them in all inventions, arts, and handicrafts, and, if necessary, to have instructors brought in from abroad.

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