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"Edict on Communal Affairs," issued by King Maximilian I, cosigned by Ministers Montgelas, Hompesch, and Morawitzky (September 24, 1808)

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§ 6. No distinction is made between full owners and usufruct owners – the person who uses the land as a tenant and lives in the community is regarded as sufficiently entitled to exercise his participation in the community.

§ 7. The communities have the rights of public corporations that are permanently obligated to the common good.

§ 8. However, in accordance with the nature of all communities, they can act only according to the common will and are under the permanent guardianship of the state.

§ 9. The following norms therefore concern especially the rights and duties of the communities, and then the manner in which they exercise and fulfill them.

Section I. Of the rights and obligations of the communities.

§ 10. In their capacity as public corporations, the communities can exercise all rights and enter upon all duties that the civil laws accord to private individuals in general and do not specifically withhold from the communities.

§ 11. The rights of the communities express themselves chiefly in the communal goods.

§ 12. The duties either lie in the social purposes of the communities, or have been created only by arbitrary actions.

§ 13. The resources to meet these obligations must be looked for within the powers of the communities themselves; – in the absence of other community assets, they consist of dues and taxes.

Chapter 1. Of the communal goods.

§ 14. The communal goods are threefold in nature and meaning, namely:

1) the common goods that the community owns as a necessary means for achieving its social purpose;

2) the community funds to be administered for its benefit;

3) the community lands, which are used individually by the members themselves although they belong to the community. [ . . . ]

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