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Anglo-German Treaty [Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty] (July 1, 1890)

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Article IX

Trading concessions, mining concessions, and property rights that companies or private persons subject to one power have acquired within the sphere of interest assigned the other shall be recognized by this latter power insofar as their validity is satisfactorily proven. It is understood that concessions shall be pursued in accordance with valid local laws and regulations.

Article X

The missionaries of both powers shall enjoy full protection in all territories in Africa that belong to one of the two powers or are in its sphere of influence. Religious tolerance, freedom of all forms of worship, and freedom of religious instruction shall be ensured.

Article XI

Great Britain shall bring to bear her full influence on the Sultan of Zanzibar to facilitate an amicable agreement by which the Sultan unconditionally cedes to Germany the Island of Mafia and his territories on the mainland (including dependencies) that are referred to in the existing concessions of the German East Africa Company. It is understood that His Highness shall receive fair compensation for the loss of revenue resulting from this cessation.

Germany agrees to recognize the British protectorate over the remaining territories of the Sultan of Zanzibar, including the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. Germany will also recognize the British protectorate over the territories of the Sultan of Witu and the adjacent territory extending to Kismayo, from which the German protectorate will be withdrawn. It is understood that, if the cessation of the German coast has not been made before Great Britain assumes its protectorate over Zanzibar, Her Majesty’s government, upon establishment of said protectorate, shall use all its influence to induce the Sultan to make the cessation as soon as possible in return for fair compensation.

Article XII

1. Pending approval by the British parliament, Her British Majesty shall grant sovereignty over the Island of Heligoland and all its facilities to His Majesty the German Kaiser.

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