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1.   Heinrich Böll on the Psychological Impact of the Economic Miracle (1960)
In this brief account of a midnight taxi-ride to the train station, the leftist Catholic writer Heinrich Böll critiques Germany’s suppression of Nazi guilt and....
2.   The Antiauthoritarian Manifesto of the Situationist Avant Garde (January 1961)
By the early 1960s, a "situationist" avant garde in cities such as Munich began to rebel against the reimposition of bourgeois respectability after the Second World War. It proclaimed the unleashing....
3.   GDR Council of Ministers’ Decision to Seal the Border (August 12, 1961)
In order to stop the seemingly incessant flood of East Germans leaving to resettle in the West, the GDR government, with the approval of the Soviet Union, decided to seal the last gap in the inner-German....
4.   West Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt’s Appeal to the U.S. President (August 13, 1961)
Frustrated by the lack of a decisive American response to the building of the Wall, West Berlin Mayor....
5.   A Neutral’s Description of the Building of the Wall (August 14, 1961)
A Swiss correspondent describes the erection of a barrier through the former German capital, analyzes the consequences of halting the stream of East German refugees to the West, and speculates about....
6.   The Communist Justification for the Division of Berlin (August 14, 1961)
The Communist party newspaper tries to justify the building of the Wall as a defensive measure against Western subversion. It cites the support of its allies in the Warsaw Pact and emphasizes East....
7.   Condemnation of the Wall by the West German Government (August 18, 1961)
Speaking in the Bundestag, i.e. federal parliament, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer denounces the building of the Wall as proof of the bankruptcy of the East German....
8.   Report on One of the First Deaths at the Zonal Border (August 30, 1961)
Observers on the Western side of the fortified border occasionally witnessed East German flight attempts. Here, a Western newspaper reports on one young man’s dramatic escape attempt and the fatal....
9.   The Onset of Turkish Labor Migration (1961)
The Federal Employment Agency announces the conditions for the employment and distribution of Turkish laborers....
10.   Family, Child-Rearing, and the Role of Women (December 3, 1961)
Using forceful language, Franz-Josef Wuermeling, Federal Minister of Family and Youth Affairs, describes what he perceives as the threat to the family posed by....
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